Third Redaction
Book of Ballymote & Book of Lecan
[ ] = glossarial matter in text


The beginning of the Third Redaction is a translation into Irish of the first eleven chapters of the Book of Genesis.
In the following the Biblical text is printed in bold type (the verses being numbered).


Chapter I.

20. (1) In principio creauit Deus caelum et terram i.e., God created Heaven and Earth at the first.

And He hath no beginning Himself, nor ending.

In this wise God made the creatures : some of them with beginning and without end, as Angels; some of them with beginning and with termination, as irrational beasts and fruits of the earth; some of them moreover with be- ginning and with termination and without termination, as are men — a beginning to their bodily birth and a termination to their bodies, and without termination to their souls.

On the Sunday God made the immense formless mass, [the materials of the corporeal creatures, fire and air, earth and water, upon the fifteenth of the kalends of April according to Hebrews and Latins, although no sun was set upon its course as yet] ; it is then that God made a beginning of fashioning the creatures. On the Monday, [on the fourteenth of the kalends of April,] God made Heaven. On the Tuesday, [on the thirteenth of the kalends of April,] God made the earth, and brought Sea around it. On the Wednesday, [on the twelfth of the kalends of April,] God made sun and moon and stars and heavenly bodies. On the Thursday, [on the eleventh of the kalends of April] God made the marine beasts and the birds of the air. On the Friday, moreover, [on the tenth of the kalends of April,] God made Adam and all the terrestrial beasts. Moreover God ceased on the Saturday, [the ninth of the kalends of April,] from the work of a new creation.

(2) Now, after the creation of Heaven and Earth, thus was the earth; fallow without fruit, bare and empty without indweller. And thick darknesses were at that time over the face of the abyss —

the common material of the creatures —

And the Spirit of the Lord was borne over the waters.

No wickedness is spoken here of the Holy Spirit, but excellence and honour of Him, beyond the creatures.

(3) and God [the Heavenly Father] said: Let the light be made. And the light was made. (4) God separated and divided the light from the darknesses. (5) And He gave the name 'Day' to the light, and the name 'Night' to the darknesses. And thus were made evening and morning, the first day.

21. (6) Further He said : Let the firmament be made in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. (7) And God made the firmament, and divided the waters that were beneath Firmament from the waters that were above Firmament : and thus was it done. (8) And God gave the name of 'Heaven' to Firmament, and evening and morning were made, the second day.

22. (9) Moreover God said : Let the waters that are under Heaven be collected into one place, and let the Dry appear : and so was it done. (10) And this is the name which God gave to the Dry, 'Earth': and God called the assemblages of the waters, 'Seas.' And God saw that it was good. (11) And God said : Let the earth bring forth green grass, and grass that shall make seed; and let it bring forth the fruit- bearing tree that shall make fruit according to its- kind, and that shall have its seed within itself upon earth. (12) And the earth put forth green grass, and grass that maketh seed according to its kind, and it put forth the tree that maketh fruit, and that hath every seed according to its species. And God saw that to be good. (13) And evening and morning were made, the third day.

23. (14) Moreover God said : Let brightly shining lights be made in the firmament of Heaven, and let them divide Day and Night : and let them be for signs and for times, for days and for years, (15) that they may shine in the firmament of Heaven, and may illuminate the earth. And thus was it done. (16) And God made two bright and great lights : He made the greater light [the sun] that it might rule over the day, and the lesser light in the night [the moon]. And He made stars, (17) and set them in the firmament of Heaven, that they might shine upon the earth, (18) and that they might rule over day and over night, and might divide the light from the darknesses. And God saw that to be good. (19) And evening and morning were made, the fourth day.

24. (20) God said further : Let the waters bring forth reptiles of the life that quickeneth, and birds under the firmament of Heaven. And so was it done. (21) And God created great [sea]-monsters, and every living and mobile beast which the waters brought forth in their species. And God created all the birds according to their kind, and God saw that to be good. (22) And God blessed them, and said : Increase and be ye multiplied, and fill the water of the sea, and let the birds be multiplied upon the land. (23) And thus were morning and evening made, the fifth day.

25. (24) Further God [the Creator] said : Let the earth bring forth the different animals after their fitting kind, cattle and reptiles, and the beasts of the earth after their fitting species; and so was it done. (25) [This verse missing.] (26) And God said : Let us make the Man under our own image and likeness, and let him have dominion over the fishes of the sea, and over the birds of Heaven, and over the beasts of the whole earth. (27) And God created the Man under His own image —

Now in this wise did God make the Man : his body of earth [his head of the land of Garad, his breast and bosom of the land of Arabia, his belly of Lodain, his legs of the land of Agoiria], his blood of [the] water [of the air], his breath of air, his heat of fire, his soul of the breath of God. Thus it is that the four elements are in every man.

In truth He made man and woman under the image of God. He created them (28) and blessed them and said : Increase, and let your multiplication be accomplished, and fill the earth, and subdue it unto yourselves, and lord it over the fishes of the sea and the birds of the Heaven and all the beasts upon the earth. (29) And God said : See, I have given you all the grass that bringeth forth seed upon the earth, and all the trees that have the seed of their proper kind within themselves, that they may be for food and sustenance unto you : (30) and unto all the beasts of the earth, and unto all the birds of Heaven, and unto all that have motion upon the earth, and that have within them the soul that quickeneth, that they may have them for nourishment. And thus was it done. (31) And God saw all things that He had made [and that were], that they were wondrous good: and evening and morning were made, the sixth day.

Chapter II.

26. (1) So the Heavens and the earth and all their adornment were completed. (2) And God finished upon the sixth day all the work which He did; and God rested upon the seventh day from every work which He accomplished. (3) And God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it, for He rested in it from every work which He created.

27. (4) Now these are the generations of the Heaven and the earth, when they were created together, in the day when the Lord God made Heaven and earth, (5) before the earth was raising up all the plants of the field, and before the earth was producing the grass of the field; for God made not rain upon the earth, and there was not there, at that time, a man who should till the earth. (6) But from the earth would rise a spring, to moisten and to soften all the face of the earth. (7) So God created a man out of the clay of the common earth, and God breathed the breath of life into his face, and the Man was made, a soul that was quickened.

When Man was made and as he had no name, God said to four angels to go in search of a name for him. Michael went to the east, and saw a star, Anatole its name, and he brought with him the first letter of that name. Raphael went southward, and saw a star there, Dusis its name, and he brought its first letter. Gabriel went northward, and saw the star called Arctos, and brought with him the first letter of the name. Uriel went westward, and saw a star in the sunset called Mesembria, and brought with him the first letter. God said : Uriel, read these letters. Uriel said : Adam. And God said: So be it.

28. (8) Moreover God planted a Paradise of Pleasure [i.e. the place of delights] from the beginning, and it is there that He set the man whom He had created [, Adam]. (9) And God prepared and created of the clay every tree pleasant and fair to see, and every tree sweet to taste. Also God set the Tree of Life in the midst of Paradise, and the Tree of Knowledge of Good and of Evil. (10) And a river would go past out of Paradise having four branches, to moisten and to soften Paradise, and the whole earth in general.

Now these are the names of those four branches, and of the four streams which are [a space] beyond, out of them, through the four quarters of the earth; Phison and Geon, Tigris and Euphrates.

(11) As for Phison, [which is called the river of Ganges, eastward straight it goeth] . It is that stream which surroundeth all the land of Euilath, that place where gold is generated, precious and most beautiful : (12) and there is found bdellium, and the other precious stone which is called onyx,

a stone which receiveth within itself the figures of flowers. Bdellium, moreover, is a precious, most brilliant stone,which findeth the pearl in its bosom : the place where it [the stone] findeth it [the pearl] it goeth no further, but abideth in that place.

(13) As for Geon, [the which is called Nilus], the second river, [northward it goeth] and it is that river which surroundeth and encompasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. (14) As for the third river, Tigris, [westward it goeth straight] toward the Assyrian regions. The fourth river, Eufrates, [southward it goeth straight, so that it floweth through the middle of Babylonia.]

1. The spring of Paradise, lasting its renown,
whose name is Nuchal of clear brilliancy;
there extend from out of it, not miserable is its strength,
four rivers of free nature.

2. Phison was revealed as sufflatio,
Geon as felicitas,
strong Tigris as uelocitas,
and Euphrates as fertilitas.

3. Phison a river of oil, gently eastward,
Tigris wine, a free circuit westward,
Euphrates honey, southward,
Geon milk, which laugheth northward.

29. (15) Thereafter God took with Him the man [Adam, after he was fashioned and created] and set him in the Paradise of Pleasure, that he might till it [i.e. that he might plough and reap, without sweat and without weariness,] and keep it, [i.e. that he might possess Paradise without transgressing the covenant and commandment of God]. (16) And God commanded, having said to him : Partake and eat of the fruit of every tree that is in Paradise, (17) howbeit thou shalt not eat aught of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and of Evil, for whatsoever day thou eatest aught of the fruit of that tree, thou shalt die the death.

For sure and certain was death for him, from the day in which he should eat : for that reason said He this.

The reason why God forbade the eating of the fruit of that tree, was that Adam might know that he was under the power and authority of the Lord.

30. (18) God said further : It is not good for a man to be alone. Let us therefore make for him an helper that shall be like unto him. (19) Now when every animal of the earth was formed of clay, and every bird of the Heaven, God brought them with Him to Adam, to see and know by what name Adam would call them. For this is the name that every animal hath, the name by which Adam called it at that time. (20) And Adam called all those animals by their own names, and all the birds of Heaven, and all the beasts of the Earth. But Adam could not at that time find an helper like to himself. (21) So God sent a quiet sleep of lasting slumber upon Adam, and as Adam slept, God took one of his ribs, and filled its place with flesh.

This is why God enticed a sleep upon Adam, for it [sleep] is the chosen teacher of spiritual matters and of knowledge of the future : for God filled him forthwith with a spirit of wisdom and of prophecy in that sleep.

(22) And God fashioned the rib which He took out of Adam, so that it was a bright woman, perfect in comeliness and in shape, and He brought her with Him to Adam. (23) And Adam said : Lo, this is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh [this is the first prophecy which Adam made] ; and therefore let her name be uirago, seeing that it was of man that she was made.

This is the first bride-gift and the first prophecy which Adam made, as it is related in the Holy Scripture, Ecce os de ossibus meis, et caro de carne mea.

(24) Wherefore shall the man leave his father and his mother, and shall attach himself to his wife, and they shall be two persons in one flesh [for the sake of love, and for begetting of progeny.]. (25) Now in this wise were both of those twain, naked, to wit Adam and his wife : and they counted it no shame.

Chapter III.

31. (1) [At that time] there was a serpent, the wiliest [, the craftiest, and the subtlest] of all the beasts of the earth which God made.

Lucifer was envious against Adam : he was assured that the Heaven would be given to him in his [own] room, to fill it. Wherefore he went in the form of a serpent, and enticed sin upon Eve, in the matter of eating of the forbidden tree; so Eve made enticement upon Adam.

This is the first question and the first enquiry which a devil made in the world. Cur praecepit etc.

And [it is that serpent which] said unto the woman : For what reason hath God forbidden you to eat aught of every tree of Paradise ? (2) The woman answered the serpent : We eat of [and are sated with] the fruit of the trees that are in Paradise; (3) but God hath commanded us not to eat of the fruit of the tree that is in the midst of Paradise, nor even to touch it, lest we die by a chance. (4) But the serpent said unto the woman : Ye shall not at all die the death. (5) But God knoweth that in whatsoever day ye shall eat of the fruit of that tree, that your eyes shall be opened [concerning evil] — that is, that ye shall be as angels, in good and evil fortune.

32. (6) So the woman saw that the tree was good for eating and for partaking, and that it was pleasant and agreeable to eyes and to sight : and [the woman] took of the fruit of the tree to herself and she did eat, and gave to her husband [Adam] and he did eat. (7) And the eyes [of mind and understanding] of those twain were opened [to a knowledge and perception of sin, that they had not committed until that hour] ; and as they realized that they were naked, they sewed the leaves of the fig-tree and made them aprons [of the leaves]. (8) And they [Adam and Eve] heard the voice of the Lord [God] a-walking [in the form of an angel] in Paradise in the sound of a violent wind, after midday. He and his wife hid them in the midst of the tree-growth of Paradise.

33. (9) And God called Adam [making use of an angelic voice], and said: Adam, where art thou? (10) Howbeit Adam answered and said : I heard Thy voice in Paradise, and fear laid hold on me, for I was naked, and I hid me. (11) God said : Who told thee that thou wast naked, other than Myself ? Hast thou eaten fruit of the Tree which I forbade thee? (12) And Adam said : The woman whom Thou gavest me as companion gave me of a tree, and I ate. (13) And God said unto the woman : Wherefore hast thou done this thing? What the woman answered was : The serpent deceived me, and I did eat.

34. (14) And the Lord said unto the serpent : In that thou hast done this thing, thou art accursed among all the animals and beasts of the earth. It shall be upon thy breast that thou shalt go : it shall be earth that thou shalt eat, for all the days of thy life. (15) And I shall set enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and the seed of the woman : the woman shall stamp upon thy head, and thou shalt lurk aside from her, hiding from feet. (16) Moreover He said unto the woman : I shall multiply thy shames, and it shall be in sickness and in distress that thou shalt bring forth thy offspring and thy progeny [i.e. thou shalt have many monthly sicknesses]. And under the power of a man shalt thou be, and his lordship shall be over thee. (17) Moreover God said to Adam : In that thou hast hearkened to the voice and incitement of thy wife, and in that thou hast eaten of the tree that I forbade thee, cursed is the earth in thy deed. It shall be in labours and in tribulations that thou shalt eat food, for all the days of thy life. (18) And the earth shall bring forth for thee sharp thorns, and spiny brushwood, (19) and it shall be in the sweat of thy face [and in the servitude of thy body and of thy frame] thou shalt eat of the plants and fruits of the earth and shalt be satisfied with victuals, till He shall have laid thee again under the earth from which God made thee. For it is of dust and of earth that he was made, and under it shall he go.

35. (20) And Adam called the name of his wife Eua, by reason of the fact that she was mother of all living[i.e. of mankind]. (21) Moreover God made for Adam and for his wife tunics and mantles of hides, and clothed them.

36. (22) And God said : Lo, Adam hath been made as one of us, having a knowledge of good and of evil —

As though what God would say was : Adam obtained not the thing which he desired, to be as one of us. But he changed and neglected the goodness and the original purity in which he was made.

So let us drive him now forth from Paradise, lest he should eat aught of the Tree of Life, and lest he should be alive for ever. (23) Wherefore God drave Adam forth from the Paradise of Pleasure, and set him in the common earth of which he was made. (24) And God ordained a Seraph in the forefront of Paradise, with a fiery sword in his hand, to guard Paradise and the way of the Tree of Life.

Chapter IV.

37. It is evident from this that so long as they were in Paradise, they were virgins.

(1) Now Adam knew Eua his wife. She conceived and brought forth Cain to him.

Cain, possessio or lamentatio interpretatur, i.e. this is the explanation and meaning which is in that word, "Cain"; i.e. "possession." And to set forth that meaning Adam said "Caneithi," i.e.

I have acquired a man through God. (2) And Eua brought forth again another son, Abel. Thus was Abel, a shepherd of sheep, and Cain, an husbandman was he. (3) It came to pass, moreover, after many days, that Cain would offer gifts of the fruits of the earth to God : (4) but Abel made offerings of the choice firstlings of his flock to God. And the Lord looked upon Abel and upon his gifts, (5) but He looked not upon Cain and upon his gifts.

Thus did Cain understand that the gifts of Abel were acceptable to God, but that his own gifts were not accept- able — in that fire would come from Heaven upon the offerings of Abel, but would not come upon the offerings of Cain.

and Cain was exceeding wroth, and his countenance fell in distress and in gloom.

38. (6) And the Lord said unto Cain : Wherefore wast thou wroth, and wherefore hath thy countenance fallen [in distress] ? (7) How now, said God, shalt thou not obtain its equivalent if thou doest well ? But if it be evil that thou doest, vengeance for it shall be nigh unto thee. (8) And Cain said unto Abel his brother : Let us go out into the field. After they had gone into the field, Cain rose up against Abel his brother and slew him,

In the city which is called Damascus. Now Abel was the first dead man of the world, and he was the first martyr that ever was ; and with good will he made confession in martyrdom.

(9) And God said unto Cain : Where is Abel thy brother? Cain answered: I know not. How now, [said Cain], is it I who am custodian for my brother?

This is one of the first two lies — the devil first and Cain afterwards.

(10) And God said unto Cain : What hast thou done? The voice and cry of thy brother's blood maketh complaint and call unto me from the earth.

There are three cries which made their way to God without delay : the cry of the blood of kin-murder, as the cry of the blood of Abel after it was shed by Cain his brother : the cry of iniquitous sin, as the cry of the sin of the Sodomites : and the cry and lamentation of the poor, when their goods have been taken from them and when they have been slaughtered.

39. (11) Thou also shalt be accursed upon the earth [and the earth also shall be accursed] which hath opened her mouth and received the blood of thy brother [after it had been shed] at thy hand.

For the sacred historians consider that it was with a shank of a camel-bone that Cain slew his brother, as he tended sheep.

(12) And when thou shalt till the earth, she shall not yield her fruits unto thee : and thou shalt be a wanderer and a fugitive [from place to place] upon the earth. (13) And Cain said unto God : Greater and huger is my iniquity than that I deserve forgiveness.

It was despair that Cain expressed there when he said these words : Thou, God, shalt not receive, and shalt not give me forgiveness, though I should work repentance. That was a blasphemy of God on his part,

(14) Lo, said Cain, Thou hast driven me today from the face of the earth, and I shall be hidden from Thy face. I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer upon the earth, and anyone shall slay me, and shall not spare me. (15) And God said unto Cain : Not thus shall it be done : but everyone who shall slay Cain shall be punished sevenfold.

i.e. Sudden death is not the remedy for sin that thou shalt obtain as thou thinkest : but thou shalt live long, so that thy punishment may be the greater.

God set Cain in a sign, so that no man should slay him —

a lump upon his forehead [and a lump (on) each of his cheeks, and a lump on each foot and on each hand] and his being beardless, and being a fugitive.

40. (16) Then Cain departed from the presence of the Lord, and dwelt, a wild fugitive, in the eastern border of the land called Eden —

The land which is in the east of Asia.

(17) Cain knew his wife, and she conceived a ,son, Enoch ; and he founded a city and gave it a name from the name of his son, Enoch. (18) And Enoch begat Irad, and Irad begat Maviahel, Maviahel begat Mathusahel. Mathusahel begat Lamech [the bigamist, i.e. (so called) from the two wives].

41. (19) Now that Lamech took two wives, Ada and Sella their names. (20) And Ada bore Iabel ; he it is who was father [and chief] of shepherds and of those who used to dwell in tents [and in desert places]. (21) Iubal, moreover, was the name of his brother : he it is who was father [and leader] of those who would handle harps and organs. (22) And Sella bore a son to the same Lamech, Tubalcain his name. He, moreover, was the first wright, the first smith, and the first carpenter. And Sella bore a daughter thereafter, Noemma, sister of Tubalcain.

She was the first weaver, and the first who fashioned raiment for everyone in the beginning.

42. (23) And Lamech said to his wives, Ada and Sella : Ye wives of Lamech, hear my voice, heed and understand my word. For I have slain a man without, today, and it is the very same thing that I wounded (him) there. He injured me, and through jealousy I slew that tender youth.

And he thought it a deed for boasting, for it was through his haughtiness and in vainglory that he spoke.

(24) He then who shall slay Cain, it shall be revenged upon him sevenfold : but he who shall slay Lamech, shall be punished seventy and seven times the equivalent.

43. (25) Then Adam knew again <his> wife, [to wit Eua] and she bore a son to him, and Adam called that son Seth; and thus he spake : God hath given me [said Adam] "ar" that is, other gentle excellent seed, in the room of Abel, whom Cain slew. (26) A son was horn to Seth, Enos his name. It is that Enos who began at the very first to call upon and to invoke the name of the Lord.


43a. A son to Enos, Cainan. A son to him, Malalehel. A son to him, Iared. A son to him, Enoch. A son to him, Mathusalam. A son to him, Lamech. A son to him, Noe.

β1 2

Enos begat Cainan. Cainan begat Malalehel. Malalehel begat Iared. Iared begat Enoch. Enoch begat Mathusalam. Mathusalam begat Lamech, and Noe was son to him.

Chapter V.

44. (1) Now this is the book [of Genesis, or of the Old Testament canon] of the creation of Adam. In the day in which God created Man under His own likeness (2) He created man and woman, and blessed them, and gave them the name from Adam [i.e. man] in the day wherein they were created.

Those skilled in sacred history consider that God gave no blessing to Adam after he committed the sin.

At the end of six hours and a half of the day did Adam and Eve commit the sin, namely the eating of the Tree of Knowledge, by the incitement of the serpent.

(3) An hundred and thirty years had Adam complete when Seth was born to him, (4) and the days of Adam after the birth of Seth to him were made eight hundred years, and he begat sons and daughters. (5) And all the life of Adam was made nine hundred and thirty years, and Adam died thereafter.

And he was buried in the city which is called Hebron, so that his body was in that place till the Flood came over the world : and the waves of the Flood sundered his body and his head each from the other, and the waves carried the head with them from Hebron to Golgotha. It abode in Golgotha till the Crucifixion of Christ. And it was through the head of Adam that the end of the Cross came : and the blood of the Lord fell over the face of Adam, and thus was Adam baptized for the first time, according to men skilled in sacred history.

45. (6) An hundred and five years were complete for Seth, when Enos was born to him. (7) Five hundred and seven years was the life of Seth after the birth of Enos, and he begat sons and daughters. (8) Six hundred and twelve years was the whole of the life of Seth, and Seth died thereafter.

46. (9) An hundred and ninety years, [that is, nine score and ten years] were complete to Enos when Cainan was born to him. (10) Now after the birth of Cainan to him, he was alive for a space of seven hundred and fifteen years, and begat sons and daughters. (11) And all the days of Enos were made nine hundred and five years, and he died thereafter.

47. (12) An hundred and seventy years [that is, eight score and ten years] were complete for Cainan when he begat Malalehel. (13) Seven hundred and forty years moreover was Cainan alive after Malalehel was born to him, and he begat sons and daughters. (14) And all the days of Cainan were made nine hundred and ten years, and he died thereafter.

48. (15) An hundred sixty and five years were complete for Malalehel when he begat Iared. (16) Seven hundred and thirty years was he alive, moreover, after the birth of Iared, and he begat sons and daughters. (17) And all the days of Malalehel were made eight hundred ninety and five years, and he died thereafter.

49. (18) An hundred sixty and two years were complete for Iared when he begat Enoch. (19) Eight hundred years, moreover, was he in his life after the birth of Enoch, and he begat sons and daughters. (20) And all the days of Iared were made nine hundred sixty and two years, and Iared died there- after.

50. (21) An hundred sixty and five years were complete for Enoch when he begat Mathusalam. (22) And it is in God's way that Enoch walked : two hundred years had he in the common life of every man after the birth of Mathusalam, and he begat sons and daughters. (23) And all the days of Enoch were made three hundred sixty and five years, (24) and he walked according to the will of God,

And it was in waste and desert places, away from the common life of every man, that that man was living for a season,

till God took him with Himself,

and set him in the noble Paradise of Adam. Now this is that Enoch son of Iared, who invented the ten excellent Hebrew names, by which God was first called, out of the different names of the Hebrews.

51. (25) Now Mathusalam begat Lamech, in the hundred eighty and seventh year of his age. (26) Seven hundred eighty and two years was Mathusalam alive after the birth of Lamech to him, and he begat sons and daughters. (27) And all the days of Mathusalam were made nine hundred forty and nine years, and he died thereafter.

52. (28) Moreover Lamech begat Noe, in the hundred eighty and second year of his age.

This is the interpretation, and the significant sense of the name Noe ; requies, or « rest »

(29) For thus did Lamech speak after the birth of Noe : this boy shall be he who shall comfort and deliver us from labours, from the labours of our hands in the accursed ill-fated earth, which God cursed,

for the sin of Adam and Eve, and Cain, the iniquitous, contentious, and deceiving, with his progeny.

(30) Five hundred ninety and five years was the life of Lamech after the birth of Noe to him, and he begat sons and daughters. (31) And all the days of Lamech were made seven hundred seventy and seven years, and he died thereafter ....

Chapter VI.

53 *** God forbade the descendants of Seth to mingle friendship with those of Cain, or to beget children by them, or to take wives from them. In spite of that, however, when the descendants of Seth saw them, they took the beautiful daughters of the descendants of Cain. They transgressed the commandment, and had children by them in despite of God. Wherefore there were born giants and dwarfs and every unshapely monstrous being that was among the people of the world before the Flood.

Others say however that it is not of them that they were found : it is of the seed of Ham.

54. (3) And God said : My Spirit shall not remain longer in man [i.e. in........ man] for he is flesh [i.e. for the exceeding greatness of his (sins? ...)]: and the days of man shall be brought to a close at the end of an hundred and twenty years. (4) Now there were gigantes upon the earth at that time, [i.e. champions of the warlike sons and the fleshly daughters of Cain.]

55. (5) Now when God saw —

that they were transgressing the covenant [in wrath, in treachery, in ***, in pride, in impiety], He determined to annihilate and to destroy all men.

Wherefore God said : (7) I shall root out, said He, Man, whom I have created, from the face of the earth, [(so there was brought) destruction upon all the beasts of the earth and upon the birds of the air] for repentance for having made them hath come on Me. (8) But Noe found favour and honour before God.

For this Noe is the one righteous perfect man who was found, of the excellent children of Seth, who had not mingled with the iniquitous children of Cain.

56. (11) Now the earth was corrupted and filled with evil [and with the iniquity of men], (12) and when God saw that, (13) He said unto Noe : The end and termination of all flesh hath come before Me. I shall destroy and confound all the inhabitants of the earth [both small and great].

57. [Moreover God said to Noe :] (14) Make thou, said He, for thyself a broad capacious roomy ark of timbers chipped and smoothed —

so that never was made nor shall be made a ship like unto it in size, in firmness, in trustworthiness, and in good craftsmanship.

And thus was it made, with four sides to it.

Make also within it many various chambers, and let the ark be smooth inside and out with pitch.

Now this is the nature that pitch possesses, that no worms, nor winds, nor water, nor sun-heat destroys the timbers that have been placed in it.

(15) And make three hundred cubits in the length of the ark, and fifty cubits in its breadth, and thirty cubits in its height. (16) And make a window in the ark, and one cubit in its thickness.

These are its materials, glue and pitch and clay, [that is, mould of the land of Syria]. It was Dia Anarlaoite who mixed these materials together, by the revelation of God. He was brother to Epiphenius, the wright of the ark, for they were the two sons of ( — )nus. There was a dwelling in preparation for every sort of animal within it. Not a nail of bronze or of iron was put into it : with pitch was its timber secured together. There were only seven days before the first of the Flood poured down, and thus were Noe and his sons, with their right knees bent under them, interceding with God to obtain succour.

God said unto Noe : Make, moreover, the door of the ark in its side, and make chambers within it, with separating roof-beams between them.

58. (17) Lo [said God] I shall bring the water of the Flood over the earth, to slay altogether flesh in which is a spirit of life beneath the heaven, and there shall be termination and end upon all that are in the earth. (18) And I shall make a compact with thee : and thou shalt go into the ark, thou and thy wife [Coba, daughter of Lamech, thy sister] and thy sons and the wives of thy sons together with thee [and of thee were they born on both sides]. (19) And thou shalt take with thee into the ark a pair of every animal, in each shape that is on the earth, in order to preserve their life [and for seeding from them after the Flood]. (21) Thou shalt take also with thee into ark food, meet and fitting [for every animal, et reliqua, lawful and unlawful] and it shall be food for thee and for them, to eat thereof. (22) So Noe did all the things which God commanded him.

Chapter VII

59. (1) And God said unto Noe : Go into the ark, and all thy people with thee, for thou art the only righteous man that I have found in this generation. (2) Thou shalt take with thee into the ark sets of seven of all the clean animals, male and female. Thou shalt take with thee sets of two of the unclean animals, male and female. (3) Thou shalt take with thee more- over sets of seven of the clean birds of heaven, male and female. Thou shalt take with thee sets of two of the unclean fowls, male and female. (4) I shall bring, said God unto Noe, the end upon the seventh day from today, a strong showering deluge upon the earth, for the space of forty days and forty nights. And I shall extinguish and remove from the face of the earth every substance which I have made. (5) So Noe did all that God commanded him.

60. (6) Now six hundred years were complete for Noe when the Flood came over the earth, (7) and Noe, with his sons and with their wives along with him, went into the ark upon the waters of the Flood, (8) and he took with him all the animals clean and unclean (9) as God commanded him.

61. (10) Now when the seven days of the week were completed, the waters of the Flood swelled mightily and increased upon the earth, (11) and every spring of the great deep burst open —

the earth opened up and vomited altogether the hidden secret springs that were in it.

Moreover the sluices [and windows] of heaven were opened from above, (12) and then strong heavy-wetting showers poured upon the earth for a space of forty days and forty nights :

and it was an hundred and fifty days without drying up. On the seventeenth day of the second month [the month of May] the Flood began to pour: on that day [i.e. on the seventeenth of the second month,] Noe, his company of eight persons, went into the ark.

(13) In the article, [that is, in the beginning] of the day in which all the animals assembled, by the command and power of God, to the ark to enter it, [it is then exactly that it was filled] the broad-keeled deep ark was fully ordered.

It was the product of the labour of skilled craftsmen, with boarding of beauty and strength.

62. (15) Now after Noe went into his ark, with his company of eight persons, and when all the creatures and all the manifold various beasts were assembled within it, (16) with all the things in store, which God had commanded Noe, God shut the ark from the outside, (17) and there was a downpour upon the earth for a space of forty days and forty nights. And the waters increased, and the waters bore the ark aloft from off the earth (18) upon the waves of the Flood.

And the ark was swimming from place to place.

63. (19) The water increased and augmented upon the earth (20) till it reached fifteen cubits above every highest hill that was under the whole heaven. (21) And destruction and a general common death was brought upon all men, (22) and upon all that had a spirit of life upon the earth,

for their haughtiness and lack of humility toward God.

(23) But Noe alone endured, and all that were with him in the ark ; (24) and the Flood was over the face of the earth for a space of an hundred and fifty days,

without diminution or decreasing.

Chapter VIII.

64. (1) But God was mindful of [and had compassion upon] the said Noe, and all the animals and all the cattle that were with Noe in his ark. And God sent a wind [to suck up the water], and the water decreased. (2) And the well-spring of the deep and the sluices of Heaven were closed, and the showers from Heaven were withheld. (3) And the waters were restored to the earth into the places whence they had come, and the waters decreased at the end of an hundred and fifty days. (4) Seventy and seven days and seven months was the ark from wave to wave, till it took rest in a mountain of Armenia. (5) The waters were drying up till the tenth month. Upon the first day of the tenth month the tops of the mountains appeared.

65. (6) At the end of forty days thereafter Noe opened the window of the ark and let out the raven (7) and it came not again. (8) [On the seventh day thereafter] he let out the dove —

and closed the ark after the dove, for fear of the winds —

(9) And the dove came back, for it found no place where it should stand,

and descended upon the ark, as it found it not opened, and made a working with its beak upon the board —

and Noe stretched his hand forth for the dove and brought it with him into the ark. (10) Then he let the dove out again at the end of the seven days, (11) and it came in the evening [of the same day] with a twig of an olive-tree having its fresh leaves in its beak.

And Noe blessed it, and cursed the raven; and for that, God gave the colour of the former to the raven, and the sheen of the raven to the other, for the insubordination of the raven.

Noe understood that the waters were decreased. (12) Howbeit, he waited other seven days and then let out the dove for the third time, and it came not again —

for there was no need.

66. (13) On the first day of the first year [after the Flood], upon the sucking-up of the waters, Noe loosened the door of the ark and looked on the earth round about him. (14) On the twenty-seventh day of the first month God came to speak with him, (15) and thus God spake unto Noe : (16) Rise from out the ark, said He, thou and thy wife and thy sons and the wives of thy sons, (17) and take with thee all the beasts that are in the ark, and step forth upon the earth. Increase and be ye multiplied upon the earth. (18) So Noe went out of the ark,

in the twenty-seventh day [of the moon of May] of the second month :

that is, the secondary month of May in the first year.

Six hundred years were complete for Noe at that time. One thousand six hundred fifty and six years from the creation of Adam till then, ut dixit,

The first age of the tuneful world
from Adam to the Flood,
fifty-six years, a clear saying,
over six hundreds and a thousand.

— and further the wife of Noe went, and his sons and the wives of his sons (19) and all the beasts that were in the ark went out of it.

On the twenty-seventh day of the same secondary month, he came out of it : as regards the day of the week, on Friday. So that thence Noe was a year and sixteen <days> in the ark. On the seventeenth day of the same month, [that is, the month of May], the Flood began to shower : on the tenth of the moon [of the second month] of the month, Noe went into the ark with his company of eight persons, and with all the animals and beasts that he took with him into it. These were, a couple of every wild creature, whatsoever should be for seeding; to wit four human pairs, fourteen pairs of birds, seven pairs of species of fish and a pair of every different kind from that onwards, that were in the ark. As regards the day of the week, it was a Friday that Noe went into the ark, and Tuesday they came out of it afterwards, ut dicitur,

On Friday there was the ingoing
into the ark complete, appointed.
On Tuesday they came out
from the fair-boarded vessel.

(§67,68 are interpolations, and are no part of the Biblical Text.)

67. Now when the Flood was brought over the world, all men were drowned save Noe and his three sons and their four wives, as we have said above. For Noe is the second Adam, to whom the men of the world are traced : and Enoch is the innocent (?) Adam : but Christ is the last Adam, by whom the seed of the aforesaid three, already mentioned, were saved, when He gave Himself on the cross of suffering instead of those three, after their time, and brought the harrowing over Hell by which the people of the five Ages all at once were saved.

68. Six hundred years were complete for Noe when the Flood came over the world : three hundred and fifty years was Noe in life after the Flood : so all that makes nine hundred and fifty years. For Noe is one of the four men of the seed of Adam, of whom the Canon telleth that had longest life — namely Adam, Iared, Mathusalam, and Noe. Nine hundred and thirty years was the life of Adam. Nine hundred sixty and two years the life of Iared. Nine hundred sixty and nine years the life of Mathusalam. Nine hundred and fifty years the life of Noe : as is said here —

1. Four who are longest of complete life,
the perfect Canon hath related :
Adam, Iareth, a bright praise,
noble Noe and Mathasalem.

2. Thirty over nine hundreds without reproach
the venerable life of Adam :
nine hundred sixty and two fair,
the life of Iareth of the fair brows.

3. Nine hundred sixty and nine
to Mathasalem, it is no falsehood :
nine hundred and fifty, it was not pitiful
the life of Noe son of Lamech.

Chapter XI.

69. (10) Sem had an hundred years complete when he begat Arfaxad, at the end of two years after the Flood. (11) Five hundred years was he, further, after the birth of Arfaxad, and he begat sons and daughters.

70. (12) Thirty-five years were complete for Arfaxad when he begat Sale. (13) Three hundred and three years was Arfaxad alive after the birth of Sale to him, and he begat sons and daughters.

71. (14) Thirty years were complete for Sale when he begat Eber. (15) Four hundred and three years was he alive further, after the birth of Eber to him, and he begat sons and daughters.

72. (16) Thirty-four years moreover were complete for Eber when he begat Faleg. (17) An hundred and thirty years was he alive after the birth of Faleg to him, and he begat sons and daughters.

73. (18) Thirty years were complete for Faleg when he begat Reu. (19) Two hundred and nine years moreover was he alive after the birth of Reu to him, and he begat sons and daughters.

74. (20) Thirty-five years were complete for Reu when he begat Saruch. (21) Two hundred and four years moreover was he alive when [or, after] Saruch was born to him, and he begat sons and daughters.

75. (22) Thirty years moreover were complete for Saruch when he begat Nachor. (23) Two hundred years moreover was he alive when Nachor was born to him, and he begat sons and daughters.

76. (24) Twenty nine years were complete for Nachor when he begat Thare. (25) An hundred and nineteen years moreover was he alive after the birth of Thare to him, and he begat sons and daughters thereafter.

77. (26) Seventy years were complete for Thare when he begat Abram and Nachor and Aram. (32) And all the life of Thare was two hundred and five years, and he died in Haran in the land of Canaan thereafter.

And that Abram is the head-rest of the Third Age of the world : nine hundred ninety and two years from the Flood to the birth of Abram in the land of the Chaldeans.

78. (20) Noe built an altar unto the Lord [after the Flood] and made acceptable offerings upon it unto God, of all the clean four-footed beasts [and of all birds] and clean fowls.

That was the first altar that was built in the world.

(21) And God considered that offering to be worthy of acceptation and pleasant. And God said unto Noe : I shall not curse [i.e. I shall not bring a Flood upon] the world again by reason of men, for fragile is their nature, and the perception and imagination of the human heart are given over and subdued to work wickedness. I shall not slay, moreover, from hence- forth every living soul as I have done. (22) But all the days of the earth there shall be spring and summer and autumn and winter without cessation.

Chapter IX.

79. (1) God blessed Noe and his sons, and said unto them : Increase and be ye multiplied and fill the earth (2) and your authority and terror shall be over all the beasts of the earth and all the birds of the air together —

and He gave the whole world to them,

fish of the sea (3) and every beast that moveth and that hath life in itself : and ye shall eat of those all, as of every green thing, (4) except only one thing : ye shall not eat of flesh with the blood thereof. (5) For I shall demand and require your blood of all beasts and of all men, and I shall demand the life of every man from every one who shall slay him. (6) For everyone that shall shed man's blood, his blood shall be shed in turn : under the image and likeness of God was man made. (7) But ye, said God to Noe and his sons, increase and be ye multiplied and fill the earth.

80. (8) Moreover God said unto Noe and his sons, (9) I shall ordain, and there shall be, My friendship with you and upon your progeny after you (10) and with all that came out of the Ark. (11) And I shall not bring a Flood over the world again,

except when the common end of every man shall come about in the Day of Judgement.

(13) Moreover, I shall put a sign of My friendship to you in the Heaven, and so long as that sign shall be seen from Heaven (15) there shall be no end nor common death upon men. This is the sign, My bow arching in the Heaven.

Therefore for that purpose is the rainbow, given for a sign of friendship to the progeny of Noe after the Flood, that God shall be united with them so long as the rainbow is seen. Howbeit it is clear from this that the rainbow did not exist before the Flood,

and that it shall not have being for fifteen years before the Judgement.

(19) From those three sons of Noe, Sem, Ham, and Iafeth, was the whole human race after the Flood begotten and born.

81. (20) Now Noe began to work husbandry, and planted a vineyard. (21) And on a time, after those things, Noe went into his tent to drink wine. Drunkenness seized hold on him, and his sleep fell on him, and his raiment slipped down from him, so that he was naked in his tent. (22) Thereafter came Ham father of Canaan, in to him, and saw the shameful members of his father which had become uncovered, and he made a mock of him. Then he went out ; and he tells his brethren [Iafeth and Sem] how that their father was naked. (23) So Sem and Iafeth came into the tent; and in this manner they went, with their backs forward, that they should not see the nakedness of their father : and they put his raiment over him and left him asleep, and came again away from him. (24) Now when Noe arose from his sleep, the doings of those sons were revealed to him ; and then his father cursed Ham, and thus he spake : (25) Cursed and corrupt is Ham, and he shall be as it were a slave of slaves for his brethren. (26) And Noe said : Let the Lord bless the aforesaid Sem, and let Ham be in service to him; (27) and let God enlarge Iafeth, and let him dwell in the tents of Sem, and let Ham be in service to Iafeth.

So that this Ham is the first man who was cursed after the Flood :

and thereafter there were born dwarfs and giants and horse- heads and every unshapely form in general that there is among men —

Thereafter there was brought [as it were] (a) destruction upon the Canaanites, and their land was given to the sons of Israel, in token of those same curses. For the Canaanites were of the seed of Ham, and it is through that same curse that there was the destruction of the children of Dardan and Ioph, so that each of them slew his fellow.

— so that that was the origin of the monsters.

Chapter X.

(Vers. 1-31 desunt)

82. (32) So the children of Noe increased and multiplied upon the earth as God said unto them : and they divided and parted the earth between them after the Flood.

Chapter XI.

83. (1) Now the earth was in this wise at that time, all men that were upon it having one and the same language,

and Gorthigern was its name, i.e. the Hebrew language,

until the languages were separated at the Tower, That came to pass in this manner, when a wonderful lawless deed was done in the world at that time once again.

84. [An] intolerable [famine ? ? seized the] men of the world at that time [and there could not be fo]und a trough (?) of the fruit of the [...] earth in the east where they were. (3) And each said to the other [go to,] that we may dry the very red, very stiff . . . bright heated clay, that it may be as solid as hard .... rough rocks. Let there also be made by us the smooth ever-[stiff?] pitch : for their beautiful lime of uniform colour. (4) Moreover they said further : .... and let there be made by us a fair-erected castle, and a strong everlastingly founded fortress. Let there be also made by us a very great, wide, royal, lofty, tall, tower, that the ridgepole of the summit of that tower may reach [that men may see] the heavens, [or above the high upper air] . And thus let our name be magnified and enlarged from on high in glory, before we be divided and scattered through lands distant and strange. And this deed was wholly done by them.

85. (5) Now God descended to see the city and the tower which the sons of Adam were building —

i.e. the sons of the wretched, earthy, man of sin : that is a reproach in the divine scripture, to call them 'sons of Adam.'

(6) And God said : Lo, all men are as it were one people, and they have one language ; and they will not cease from the purposes which they have begun, till they have fulfilled them. (7) Let us therefore confuse and crush their smooth, gentle, tuneful speech, that none of them may understand the voice of another. (8) So that people was confused, maddened, and caused to err, with the multitude of the different unknown languages : and thus they left off from their deeds which they had begun to do. (9) Wherefore the name of that place was called "Babel," i.e. "confusion": for there all the languages of the world were confused, to wit the seventy-two languages, from the three sons of Noe. God scattered those nations into the whole earth.

[Here the extract from the Book of Genesis ends.]

86. Noe divided the world into three parts among his sons : Sem in Asia, Ham in Africa, Iafeth in Europe. And each of them died in his own division. Sem died on the summit of Sliab Radruip of the heat of the sun, Iafeth died on the summit of Sliab Armenia, Ham died on the summit of Sliab Rafan. So that the following song was said of that matter —

1. Father of all, Master of Heaven,
the noble angelic King,
our Champion, our Lord, our Head,
without beginning, end, or termination.

2. Better than every King is the King of Grace
by whom was made the great excellent world-stuff,
the orders of Heaven, fair the fame,
together on the first Sunday.

3. He formed the seven heavens on the Monday,
on the Tuesday sea, earth with enduring surface;
on the Wednesday, moon and bright sun ;
clouds and birds on Thursday.

4. Man, who was formed thereafter,
Debrad ! on the Friday, —
he was taken, from foot to head,
out of the fair common earth.

5. The works of the full sixth day
I shall relate to you in (this) good company;
[I shall tell of] the beasts of the earth, west and east,
of the form of Adam, rich in colour.

6. The head of renowned Adam perfectly
was taken from the good land of Malon :
through which go forth
the rivers of Paradise famously.

7. The breast of the man from lofty Aron,
his belly from ever-fierce Babylon,
his legs from Laban, a conspicuous land,
his thighs from the country of Gogoma.

8. Three days had Adam without life
after his formation from earth ;
because of a Man who was three days
without life in His ever-fair body.

9. There were Three Persons who formed his fair body
after he arose alive;
sweat from water, it was with his good will,
heat of fire, breath of air.

10. The night of Adam, generous the repose,
eastward upon Pairtech Mountain of Paradise;
he welcomed the sight of the sun
over the top of the great mountain.

11. I adore, I adore Thee, God!—
this was the first word that he uttered :
When he saw noble Eve,
then he made his first laugh.

12. His first walk — beauty of strength —
to the Spring of Partech of Paradise :
his first race, a course with swiftness,
to see the birds.

13. Fifteen days, it is no idle tale,
had Adam and Eve together,
till a demon of misdeeds (?)
reached them, on a Friday.

14. The form of a serpent, a body of thin air,
the devil took to himself on the evil course :
the letters through which he made incantation — a wretched affair —
were He, Vav, He, and Yodh.

15. There is the reason — it is familiar —
why men say "Left beyond right" :
because it is the crooked left hand
that was stretched to the apple.

16. After they had sinned — it was not lawful —
they were cast into the lofty land of Egypt :
A space of three months after the transgression
the one palm-tree fed and clothed them.

17. Cain was conceived, it was not long;
Abel was conceived and brought to birth ;
to withered Cain of the shackle
the deed of the curse adhered.

18. They went to offer two rams,
Abel, Cain who was not noble ;
the King did not consider worthy
the offering which Cain brought with him.

19. There came the grace of the brilliance of the King of Suns
upon the offering which Abel brought :
thence did envy and anger fill
sinful Cain of the crooked crafts.

20. Cain took in his savage hand
the guilty jaw-bone of the camel;
to Abel he leapt with violence,
so that he slew him with a blow.

21. Seth set his hand to the jaw-bone,
on seeing the blood of the sin :
he is the man without deficiency
upon whom the first beard grew.

22. The learned tell us,
the people of wisdom of manifold melody,
that from a long time the stones grow not —
from the day when Abel's blood suffused them.

23. After that seven wens took hold
upon Cain, after the kin-murder :
a wen [upon] each of his fair feet,
and two wens upon his hands.

24. A wen in his forehead, alas,
and a wen [upon] each of his cheeks :
through the wen of his forehead, very wretched !
[went] the apple which Lamech cast.

25. Lamech the two-spoused, without falsehood,
he is the first man who took two wives :
by him did crooked Cain fall,
after he cast the apple upon him.

26. The two sons of Lamech, valiant their strength,
Iubal and Tubalcain :
Iubal invented harps of music ( ?),
Tubalcain was the first smith.

27. The offering of Abel, as it hath been heard,
was taken after him into Paradise ;
that is the very splendid ram
which was given in place of the sons (sic) of Abram.

28. The hide formerly of that ram
came to Abram after Abel :
it was seen about Christ without fault
as He washed for His disciples.

29. Daisia, that was the name of the tree
with much and beautiful fruit,
in the Plain of Aron in Paradise —
for which the sin was committed.

30. Eight and forty, nine hundreds
and a thousand, it is no fiction,
from the time of that same fair Adam
to Abram, to the father.

31. Thirty and nine hundred clear years
was the life of Adam with its fame ;
ten years, with all of those,
was the life of his yellow-haired wife.

32. The life of Seth, I have that knowledge,
fifteen over nine hundreds :
five years and nine hundred, it was heard,
until death took Enos.

33. Ten years and nine hundred, without vexation
the age of the son of Enos, Cainan;
nine hundred save five, with renown,
the life of Malaleth great and pure.

34. Sixty five years, nine hundred
to Iareth before going to death :
three hundred sixty and five was it heard
to Enoch before going into Paradise.

35. Eighty years with fame
and nine hundreds of years —
that is the stately life
which was given to Mathusalem.

36. The life of Lamech, to you is it mentioned,
seven hundred, five and seventy :
the life of Noe, holy his renown,
fifty over nine hundreds of years.

37. Adam had three sons who had progeny —
Seth, Sile, Cain perverse and crooked :
their three wives, victorious strength !
were Olla, Pip and Pithip.

38. Three sons of noble Noe, of every [kind of] strength
Sem, Ham, glorious Iafeth :
from Ham, for all his firmness,
the high-kingship was sundered.

39. Cata Rechta, she was the wife of Sem,
Cata Casta, the wife of Iafeth,
Cata Flavia, with pleasant love,
was the name of Ham's wife, I conceal it not.

40. Ham settled in pleasant Africa,
Iaphet settled in Europe;
it is not hidden from us, before God ! —
Sem settled altogether in Asia.

41. Thirty races, a pure, clear saying,
sprang from Ham son of Noe :
twenty seven, which are from Sem,
fifteen from Iafeth.

42. In the mountain of Radrap the fate of Sem ;
the death of Iafeth in a mountain of Armenia ;
in the mountain of Rafann, a pure, clear saying,
the great sleep of Ham son of Noe.

43. The height of the ark, a place in which are
thirty balanced cubits;
three hundred cubits in its length ;
in its breadth, fifty cubits.

44. One cubit in its thickness eastward,
what with wood and pitch :
pitch about it without regret (?),
outside and inside.

45. Its door out of its free side,
as holy Noe ordained;
for He would open its side eastward,
our Christ, our Head, our Father.

46. Thrice fifty miles with victory
was the height of the famous Tower of Nemrod;
fifty miles over every side
did the strong royal Tower contain.

47. Thrice four men and three score, truly,
the reckoning of leaders and strong kings
by whom the Tower was made in the East,
including Nemrod and Nabcodon.

48. Including Assur and lofty Ibad,
Latinus and Longbardus,
Grecus and brilliant Gomer,
great Eber son of Sale.

49. Including Bodb and Britus without deception,
Germanus and Garad,
Scithus and pure Gothus,
Dardan and swift Sardan.

50. King of the earth and of the lords,
the King who prolongeth every life,
may He make enduring my form, my body
though the abbot and the high king be alike.

51. The languages were dispersed for them,
for the subjection of Nemrod, great in strength ;
and the Tower was overturned,
so that their pride was humiliated.

52. Five years and forty fair,
a thousand seven hundreds of years,
from the superb beginning of the world,
till the Tower of Nemrod fell.

53. In the plain of Senar, after the Tower,
was the fair school assembled,
in the city of Ibitena,
for learning the manifold languages.

54. Those skilled in the tongues — 'tis tuneful fame —
for their cunning I enumerate them :
including Feinius Farsaid with grace
and Cai of the just judgements.

55. Hiruath, Nenual brother of Nel,
Gaedel son of Etheor,
David, Loth of the blades,
Saliath, Nabcodon, Forand.

56. Talemon, Cainan, there is no concealment,
Caleph, Mored, Gad, Cromer,
Etrochius, Bel, tuneful Bobel,
Ossi, Iessu, Iochim.

57. Hidomus and lofty Ordmor,
Achab and very rough Ruben,
Humelchus, brilliant Ionan,
Affraim, Sru, Iar son of Nema.

58. Nel son of Feinius who was not weak
went into Egypt, to Piarao;
in the land of Egypt thereafter,
was born Gaedel our father.

87. Thereafter the children of Adam played false, in pride, in haughtiness, in sin, and in kin-murder : Cain son of Adam, the elder, he slew his brother Abel through his envy and jealousy, with a shaft of a camel-bone. Wherefore God brought a Flood over the whole earth.

Now never was son born of father at the end of a year save [from] Adam only : for it is true that one year of Adam was not complete, if indeed it was quite complete, when Cain was conceived.

88. As for Seth, son of Adam, one of the three eminent sons which Adam had, from him are the men of the whole earth. [Noe s. Lamech s. Mathusalam s. Enoch s. Iared s. Malalehel s. Cainan s. Enos s. Seth s. Adam]. Now Noe is the second Adam, to whom are traced the men of the whole earth. For the Flood drowned the seed of Adam save Noe and his three sons, Sem, Ham, Iafeth, and their four wives Coba, Olla, Oliva, Olivana.

The progeny of Adam sinned [fell] ; so God brought a Flood over the whole earth, so that not one escaped from it alive except the people of the ark, to wit Noe and his three sons, Sem, Ham, Iafeth, with their four wives Coba, Olla, Oliva, and Olivana.

As one said —

1. A host that a wintry death would not subdue,
Noe, there was no hero's weakness,
a story with horror has been made clear with keenness —
Sem, Ham, and Iafeth.

2. Women without evil colour, great excellences,
above the Flood without extinctions,
Coba, vigorous was the white swan,
Olla, Oliva, Olivana.

89. From Adam to the Flood is the First Age. This is the tally of years that are in it first, one thousand six hundred fifty and six years, as the poet said,

The first age of the tuneful world
from Adam to the Flood,
fifty-six years, a clear saying,
over six hundreds and a thousand.

These are the leaders of that First Age, with their lives, after Seth first of all —


930 years


910 years


612 "


800 "


905 "


965 "



365 years




969 "




777 "


So Seth settled in Asia, Ham in Africa, Iafeth in Europe, as the poet said,

Sem settled in pleasant Asia;
Ham with his progeny in Africa ;
noble Iafeth and his sons,
it is they who settled in Europe.

90. (* In H only *) Now those three sons of Noe, Sem, Ham, Iafeth, begat and fathered many numerous and various nations and progenies, to wit, seventy-two peoples [i.e. three score and twelve peoples]. Now thus were these peoples born and scattered : twenty-seven of them from Sem, thirty from Ham, fifteen from Iafeth, which makes in all seventy-two peoples. And there were seventy-two languages given to them after the confusion of Nemrod's Tower : so that in the end of ten years after that, Feinius Farsaid extracted the speech of the Gaedil out of the seventy-two languages, and set it forth to his fosterling, the son of Agnomain, Gaedil.

Or perhaps it was at the end of ten years after the scattering of the school on every side that Feinius Farsaid [the sage] extracted the speech of the Gaedil out of the seventy-two languages, and gave it afterwards to Nel, his own son.

He gave it to Gaedil Glas son of Nel, and to his sons; so that from them is the language named.

91. (* In H only *) Now the number of those peoples increased beyond the numbers of the languages ; for there are in Africa many peoples having one language, and no change of tongue. This is the reason thereof, that there were only seventy-two peoples yonder at the Tower, when the languages were separated : and though the peoples were multiplied, they were not multiplied in the computation of different peoples, but were left as a subordinate company of the peoples nearest to them. So that the nations are greater in substance than the languages, though they are not greater in number.

92. So that it is from those three sons of Noe that the seventy-two peoples were born after the Flood, with their seventy-two languages that were given to them thereafter, at the confusion of Nemrod's Tower. And it was at the end of ten years thereafter that Feinius Farsaid extracted the language of the Gaedil out of the seventy-two languages.

Sem had thirty [or twenty seven] sons, including Arfaxad, Assur, Persius —

and it is of his seed that the Hebrews come. These are the five sons from whom he had descendants, Elam, Assur, Arfaxad, Lud, and Aram : and though five sons of Sem are named, I do not give in enumeration the descent of more than two of them.

Ham had thirty sons, including Chus, Mesraim, Fut, Chanaan,

and though thirty sons of Ham are named, I do not give in enumeration the descent of more than two of them.

Iafeth had fifteen,


including Danai, Gregus, Espanus, Gomerus : or [Sem] had twenty-seven sons.


And I do not give in enumeration the descent of more than three of them. It is not the case that the other sons had no descendants : but none were born from them worthy of being called "a people."


Or perhaps these are the names of the sons of Iafeth — Gomer, Magog - , Madai, Iavan, Tubal, Mosoch, Tiras, Maisechda.


Thus it is that those peoples were descended, twenty-seven from Sem, thirty from Ham, fifteen from Iafeth, ut dicitur

Thirty sleek sons, a brilliant fact,
they sprang from Ham son of Noc,
twenty-seven who are from Sem,
and fifteen from Iafeth.

93. (* In H only *) Iafeth son of Noe, of him is the northern side of Asia and the people of all Europe. Sem over the middle of. Asia, from the river Euphrates to the eastern region of the world. Ham settled in Africa and on the southern side of Asia.

94. As for Iafeth, it is his progeny which we shall follow now. From him is the northern side of all Asia, namely Asia Minor, and Armenia, and the people of Scythia; and from him are Graecia Parva, and Graecia Magna, and Alexandrian Greece. Of him also are the people of all Europe.

Moreover it is of his progeny that is every Taking which took Ireland, save only Cessair.

95. (* In H only *) (A) Of the children of Iafeth here now. Iafeth son of Noe and Olivana his wife, they had eight sons, Gomer, Magog, Madai, Iabal or Iavan, [the eldest] , Tubal, Mosoch, Thiras, Maisegda.

(B) As for Gomer, of him are the Galladagdae [= Galatae] , and they are the same as the Galli. Another name for them is Gallograeci.

Why is the seed of Gomer son of Iafeth called "Gallograeci" ? They were fundamentally Galli, says Isidorus : and the ruler of the land called Bithynia gave to the Greeks a portion of his land for giving him help. They stayed with him to oppose his brethren; and for that reason they are called Gallograeci, because they were fundamentally in part Greeks, in part Galli; and it will not arise that Gregus was a son of Gomer.

(C) Thessalus son of Gregus built the city called Thessalonica, and therein he ruled his kingdom. From him is Thessaly named authentically, and Greece is named from his father.

(D) Gomer had four sons, Rifath Scot from whom are the Scots; now he was Ibath son of Gomer, the grandfather of Feinius Farsaid [Feinius Farsaid s. Baath s. Ibath s. Gomer s. Iafeth].

Why are the Gaedil called Greeks of Scythia, seeing that fundamentally they are not of the seed of Nemed son of Agnomain? They are of the people of Scythia, for they are of the seed of Feinius Farsaid, who had the princedom of Scythia. However, he had not the kingdom of Scythia, but its princedom : and as they are of the progeny of Gomer, the Gaedil are called Greeks. We find it hard to disconnect them from Gomer on that account.

(E) The three other sons of Gomer were Aschenez, of whom are the Rhegini, Rifath of whom are the Paphlagonians, Thogorma of whom are Phrygia and Ilia.

(F) Madai or Meda, son of Iafeth, a quo the Medes; and eight men of the Medes took the kingship of the world.

(G) Ionan son of Iafeth, from them (sic) are the Ionians, and from him were the Aeolians born. He has another name, Gregus son of Iafeth. From him is named one of the five languages of the Greeks, the Aeolic, and from him the Greeks are named authentically. For the genealogy of Alexander son of Philip, king of Greece, is traced to Gregus son of Iafeth and from him are the ... (?) Greeks. Also, the Ionian Sea is named after him.

(H) He had five sons, Elissa, Tharsis, Cetthim, Dodanim, Gregus. Elissa a quo Aetolia, the pedigree-stem of the Siculi. Tharsis, from him are Tarsus and the Cilicians. Cetthim, a quo is Iuppiter son of Saturn, as the book of Augustine De Ciuitate Dei saith, and of whom are the Citii. From them is named the city of the Cyprii, namely Citium.

(I) Dodanim, from him are the Rhodii. By these people the islands of the Torrian Sea, with their various inhabitants, were appropriated, to wit Rhodes, and Carpathos, and Sicily, and Crete, and Cytherea, and the Balearic Islands, and very many other islands which we have not enumerated here, owing to failure of memory. Gregus, a quo the Greeks.

(K) Tubal, from him are the Iberi and the Hispani [or perhaps Easpanus was a son to Iafeth, and from him are the Hispani] and the Celtiberi and the Itali. For [it is] Eperus, of the seed of Tubal of the race of Iafeth, a quo the Epirotae, and from whom sprang Ianus, king of the Epirotae. He is the first king who took over the Romans. From him is named the month of January, and from him are the Quirites.

(L) Mosoch, of him are the Cappadoces. Thiras, of him are the Thraces. Maisegda is missing.

(M) Magog, of him are the men of Scythia and the Goths, that is, the Gaedil. Magog had five sons, Baath, Ibath, Barachan, Emoth, Aithechta. As for Baath, his son was Feinius Farsaid, father of the Scythians. As for Feinius Farsaid, he was son of Baath s. Magog s. Iafeth. Others say however that Feinius Farsaid was s. of Baath s. Ibath s. Gomer s. Iafeth.

(N) As for Ibath, one of the two sons of Magog, his son was Alainius. He had three sons, Airmen, Negua, Isicon. Airmen had five sons, Gotus, Uiligotus, Cebitus, Burgandus, Longbardus. Negua had four sons, Vandalus, Saxus, Bogardus, Longbardus. Isicon, the third son of Alainius, had four sons, Francus, Romanus, Albanus, a quo Albania in Asia Minor, and Albanactus s. Britan s. Silvius s. Ascanius s. Aeneas s. Anchises, a quoa quo western Alba, and Britus, from whom are called the Islands of Britain.

(0) Then was the world divided into three divisions, Europe, Africa, Asia. Seventeen years before the scattering of the languages there came the first man of the seed of Iafeth into Europe, Alainius s. Ibath s. Magog s. Iafeth s. Noe. Alainius, of him are the Franks and the Romans. And his three sons came with him, Armen, Negua, Isicon : so that on the hither side they begat those sons of whom we have heard.

(P) Saxus s. Negua s. Alainius s. Ibath s. Magog s. Iafeth s. Noe, of him are the Saxons. Emoth s. Magog, of him is the people of the north of the world. Barachan, a quo the Gaedil, s. Etheor s. Bai s. Tai s. Barachan s. Magog. Aithechtaig s. Magog, of his progeny are the peoples who came into Ireland before the Gaedil — Partholon s. Sera s. Sru s. Esru s. Praiment s. Aithechtaig s. Magog s. Iafeth s. Noe : and Nemed s. Agnomain s. Paim s. Tat s. Sera s. Sru. Others of the books say that Nemed was of the family of the son whom Partholon left in the east, Adla s. Partholon. Also the children of Nemed, the Gaileoin and Fir Bolg and Fir Domnann and Tuatha De Danann. Of those the poet sang,

1. Magog son of Iafeth,
there is certainty of his progeny :
of them was Partholon of Banba —
decorous was his achievement.

2. Of them was noble Nemed
son of Agnomain, unique ;
of them were Gand and Genand,
Sengand, free Slaine.

3. The numerous progeny of Elada,
of them was Bres, no untruth :
son of Elada. expert in arms,
son of Delbaeth son of Net.

4. S. Inda, s. Allda—
Allda who was s. Tat,
s. Tabam s. Enda,
s. Baath, [son of] pleasant Ibath.

5. S. Bethach s. Iardan
s. Nemed grandson of Paimp :
Pamp s. Tat s. Sera
s. Sru s. white Braiment.

6- Of Braiment s. Aithecht,
s. Magog, great in renown :
there happened in their time
a joint appearance against a Plain.

(Q) Now these are those peoples, to wit the progeny of Iafeth, who took the territory and princedom of all Europe and of the northern side of Asia ; and those are the fifteen chief people of the progeny of Iafeth, with their subordinate people. And they possessed many territories in Asia, namely from Mount Amanus and Mount Taurus northward to the river Don, and to Northern Scythia : and they possessed all Europe to the ocean of sea in the west of the island of Britain, and to three-cornered Spain in the south, i.e. the Astures. (?) Of the progeny of Iafeth son of Noe down to this, with their chief peoples and their subordinate peoples, their takings and their territories, both in Asia and in Europe.

96. (* In H only *) As for the three sons of Noe that we have reckoned above, Sem, Ham, Iafeth : before the Flood were those three persons born. Others say that a son was born to Noe after the Flood, named Ionitus. Ethan was the portion of territory which he received : out of the other three portions was his portion selected. He was a good astrologer, having learnt it from his father Noe.

97. (* In H only *) Coba, wife of Noe, she it is who wove raiment for every one after the Flood.

Eua wife of Adam, she it is who first wove an apron for herself and for Adam, on the third day after coming from the river Tiber (sic : lege Tigris) after their penance, when God had commanded it to her.

Catafola their daughter, who was born along with Cain, wife of Pendan son of Adam, she it is who wove raiment before anyone else : about her was the jealousy excited.

Iafeth son of Noe, it is he who first sounded a harp and an organ after the Flood.

Sem, son of Noe, the first smith, the first wright, the first carpenter after the Flood.

As for Noe, he began to work husbandly in the first year after the Flood. He made ploughing and reaping, and planted a vineyard.

Ham, son of Noe, first attained to swimming and poetry and bardism.

Now when Ham understood thereafter that the Flood should come, and the prophets were foretelling that a destruction of the progeny of Adam should come, by reason of Cain's kin-murder against his brethren, he made three four-sided columns, one of lime, one of clay, and one of wax. And he wrote upon them the histories of the [antediluvian] age, so that they should endure after the Flood. The columns of lime and of clay were destroyed, and the column of wax remained : and this it was that related the histories of the Age before the Flood, and it survives thereafter.

Olivana his [Iafeth's] wife, it is she who first fashioned raiment after the Flood.

98. Grecus s. Iafeth, of him is Graecia Magna and Graecia Parva and Alexandrian Greece. Espanus s. Iafeth, from whom are the Hispani. Gomer s. Iafeth had two sons, Emoth and Ibath. Emoth, of him is the northern people of the world. Ibath had two sons, Bodb and Baath. Bodb, who had a son Dohe. Elenus s. Dohe had three sons, Airmen, Negua, Isicon. As for Airmen, he had five sons, Gutus, Cebidus, Uiligothus, Burgundus, Longbardus. Negua more- over had three sons, Saxus, Boarus, Uandalus, Isicon moreover, one of the three sons of Elenus, had four sons, Romanus, Francus, Britus, Albanus. This is that Albanus who first took Alban, he and his children, and of him is Alba named : so he drove his brother across the sea of Icht, and from him are the Albanians of Latium of Italy.

99. Magog son of Iafeth, of his children are the peoples who came into Ireland at first before the Gaedil, namely Partholon s. Sera s. Sru s. Esru s. Gaidel Glas s. Nel s. Feinius Farsaid s. Bathath s. Magog s. Iafeth ,s. Noe : or Partholon s. Sera s. Sru s. Esru s. Brament s. Aithechda s. Magog s. Iafeth. And Nemed s. Agnomain s. Pamp s. Tat s. Sera s. Sru s. Esru &c. And the progeny of Nemed, to wit the Galeoin, the Fir Bolg, the Fir Domnann, and the Tuatha De Danann.

And the families of the progeny of Bethach s. Iarbonel Faith s. Nemed, i.e. the Tuatha Taiden and the Domnannaig, of whom was Conall of Cruachu, and the progeny of Umor, and the Cruithne of Cruacha, and septs of Sliab Fuirri of whom were the kings i.e. Tinde s. Conri, and Mac Cecht, and the Fir Chraibi, of whom was Tinde s. Conri and Eochu Dula. And learned men reckon that of the relics of these families were the Clanna Morna and the old populations of Connachta in general.

100. So that of the said Takings of Partholon and of Nemed, and of the genealogies of those peoples in general, was this sung —

1. Magog son of Iafeth,
there is certainty of his progeny :
of them was Partholon of Banba —
decorous was his achievement.

2. Of them was noble Nemed
son of Agnomain, unique ;
of them were Gand and Genand,
Sengand, free Slaine.

3. The numerous progeny of Elada,
of them was Bres, no untruth :
son of Elada. expert in arms,
son of Delbaeth son of Net.

4. S. Inda, s. Allda—
Allda who was s. Tat,
s. Tabam s. Enda,
s. Baath, [son of] pleasant Ibath.

5. S. Bethach s. Iardan
s. Nemed grandson of Paimp :
Pamp s. Tat s. Sera
s. Sru s. white Braiment.

6. Of Braiment s. Aithecht,
s. Magog, great in renown :
there happened in their time
a joint appearance against a Plain.

We shall leave off from the progeny of Noe and their adventures. We shall tell now of the progeny of Gaeidel and of their adventures and their Takings.

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