LEBOR GABALA ERENN
THE BOOK OF THE TAKING OF IRELAND

Second Redaction
Stowe collection (D.5.1, D.4.1, D.1.3), Book of Lecan & Stowe D.4.3
[ ] = glossarial matter in text



SECTION I
— FROM THE CREATION TO THE DISPERSAL OF THE NATIONS



[* The opening paragraphs are numbered to correspond with R1, being derived from a lost MS. of that Redaction ; and are distinguished by a suffixed asterisk. *]

1*. In principio fecit Deus caelum et terram, i.e., God made Heaven and Earth at the first.

2*. He made first the formless mass, and the light of Angels, [on the first Sunday]. He made Firmament [on the Monday]. He made earth and sea [on the Tuesday]. He made sun and moon and the stars of Heaven [on the Wednesday]. He made birds [of the air] and [marine] reptiles [on the Thursday]. He made beasts [of the earth] in general, and Adam to rule over them[, on the Friday]. Thereafter [God] rested [on the Saturday] from the accomplishment of His new creation [, and gave them a blessing, but by no means from its governance].

2a. In this wise God made the creatures : some with beginning and without end, as Angels ; some moreover with beginning and with end, as irrational beasts and fruits of the earth; some further with beginning and with termination and without termination, as are men — a beginning to their bodily birth and a termination to their bodies, and no termination to their souls.

In this wise, further, was that man, Adam, made : his body of common earth,

his head of the land of Garad, his breast of the land of Arabia, his belly of Lodain, his legs of the land of Agoria :

his blood [and his sweat] of the water of the air, his breath of the air, his heat of fire, his soul of the breath of God.

In the third hour after the creation of Adam, Eve was drawn out of his side. At the age of a thirty years' space Adam was created, at the age of twelve years Eve was created.

3*. [God] gave the bailiffry of Heaven to Lucifer, with nine orders of Angels about him. [Thereafter] He gave the bailiffry of Earth to Adam [and to Eve with his progeny]. Lucifer made an assault upon Heaven, by reason of pride and haughtiness against God, so that he was expelled, for the crime of that haughtiness, out from Heaven, [with a third of the host of angels in his company], into Hell. So that then God said unto the Folk of Heaven: [Over-haughty is this Lucifer]: et dixit, Venite ut uideamus et confundamus consilium eius, i.e., Come and let us see and put to shame the counsel of this Lucifer. That is the first judgement which was ever pronounced.

4*. Thereafter Lucifer had envy against Adam, (for) he was assured that this would be given him [as a reward], to fill Heaven in his room. Wherefore he [Iofer Niger] came in the form of a serpent [with a tenuous body] and persuaded Eve to the sin, in the matter of eating of the apple from the forbidden tree, [and Eve persuaded Adam] . . .


5*. And God said unto them : De terra es et in terram ibis, [i.e., Of earth thou art and into earth shalt thou go]. Et dixit, In sudore uultus tui comedes panem tuum, [i.e.. It shall be in the sweat of thy face that thou shalt eat thy loaves]. He said further unto Eve, Cum dolore et gemitu paries filios tuos [et filias tuas, i.e., It shall be with torment and sickness that thou shalt bring forth thy sons and thy daughters].


5a. The corporeal creation was displayed to Adam, and he accepted them not. Wherefore a sleep was cast upon him. In that sleep thereafter was Eve fashioned, after being drawn from the seventh rib out of his side. And then said Adam : Ecce os de ossibus meis, et caro de carne mea [i.e. (b) it is as it were that (?) I see a bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. That is the first laugh which was ever uttered, and the first welcome].


4*. Resumed ... After incurring the guilt of the transgression, Adam was then expelled out of Paradise into the common earth, [lest he should eat the fruits of the Tree of Life in Paradise; for were he to eat, he would never die, but have health and ease of mind (c) (?)].

6*. Thereafter the progeny of Adam committed transgression, to wit, the elder of the sons of Adam, Cain the accursed, by the slaying of his brother Abel son of Adam in his envy and haughtiness. [That was the first kin-murder of the world]. With the cheek- bone of a camel Cain slew his brother. [Or, as others say, after the likeness of the slaying of the sacrifices, it was his grasp which he closed around his neck] ***


[*The original text of R2 begins at this point.*]


11***** so that it was on that account that God brought a Flood over the world altogether, so that none thereof escaped alive except Noe and his wife, [his own sister], and his three sons, [who were the husbands of his three daughters], and his three daughters, [who were the wives of the three sons].

12. Now this was the reason for their deliverance to the exclusion of all others, for that they mingled no friendship with the progeny of Cain; and for their replenishing of the earth again. Forty days was the Flood a-raining. Six hundred years was the age of Noe when he went into his ark, [when there came to Noe the construction and ordering of the ark in accordance with the teaching of God : pairs of the unclean, triple pairs (or sevens) of the clean, for the purpose of sacrifice after the Flood]. So Noe went with his sons [and with his daughters] and with their wives, into his ark, on the seventeenth day of the moon of May. [On the nones of May they went into the Ark.] Twelve cubits [was the water] above the highest mountains.

Ten cubits was the ark under water, and twenty above water : and this is why it was ten under water — the Flood had twelve above the highest mountain, for the sake of the ark, for it (the ark) had ten cubits under water. So that two cubits of water would not be excessive between the keel of the ark and the tops of the mountains. Therefore the waters were twelve cubits in depth above every lofty mountain.

13. The Flood drowned all the men and beasts together, except the people of the ark, [and Enoch, who is in Paradise to fight against Antichrist, and Fintan son of Bochra. He it is who should relate these stories to all men, after the Flood].

14. At the end of a hundred and fifty days the waters began to dry up. Twenty-seven days and seven months was the ark (moving) from wave to wave, till it settled on a mountain of Armenia. The waters dried up until the < tenth month : on the first day of the> tenth month the tops of the mountains were seen. At the end of forty-seven days thereafter, Noe opened a window of the ark, and he sent the raven forth ; and it came not back again. He let the dove out on the morrow, and it came back, for it found no place where it should stay. Noah sent it forth again at the end of seven days, and it came with the evening, having a twig of an olive-tree with its leaves in its beak. And he sent it forth again at the end of seven days, and it came not back.

15. God said unto Noe to come out of the Ark, on the twenty-seventh day of the moon of May, [on the day before the nones of May,] in the six hundred and first year of the age of Noe.

The beginning of the second age of the world. To the birth of Abram it reached, two hundred ninety and two years according to the Hebrew verity, but according to the Septuagint it is eight hundred forty and two years.

Thereafter Noe caused an altar to be builded to God [, the first altar that was made after the Flood] . Three hundred and fifty years was Noe alive after the Flood : and Noe divided the world into three parts among his sons.

The names of the sons of Noe : Sem, Ham, Iafeth. The names of their wives thereafter : Olla, Olivana, Oliva: de quibus dicitur hoc carmen:

1. A host that a wintry death would not subdue,
Noe, there was no hero's weakness,
a story with horror has been made clear with keenness —
Sem, Ham, and Iafeth.

2. Women without evil colour, great excellences,
above the Flood without extinctions,
Coba, vigorous was the white swan,
Olla, Oliva, Olivana.

As for Ham, he settled in Africa and the south side of Asia. Sem over the middle of Asia, from the river of Euphrates to the eastern border of the world. Of Iafeth is the north side of Asia, and the people of all Europe : and of his progeny are we who are Gaedil.

16. Gaidel Glas our ancestor, he was s. Nel s. Feinius Farsaid s. Eogan s. Glunfhind s. Lamfhind s. Etheor s. Thoe s. Bodb s. Sem s. Mar ,s. Aurthacht s. Aboth s. Ara s. Iara s. Sru s. Esru s. Baath s. Rifath Scot, from whom are the Scots. Now it is Rifath Scot who brought the Scotic Language from the Tower, for he was one of the six principal chieftains who were at the building of the Tower of Nemrod.
From that, it is clear that Feinius was not at the building of the Tower, as the historians say who have not harmonized the synchronism. This is why we say so, for Feinius was the sixteenth in descent from Rifath, who brought Scotic from the Tower.

17. Sixty-two years from the dispersal of the Tower to the princedom of Ninus son of Belus. Eight hundred seventy and four years from the beginning of the princedom of Ninus to the end of the princedom of Tutanes, king of the world. Toward his time was Troy taken for the last time. There were seven years after that capture, till Aeneas [son of Anchises] took [Lavinia] daughter of Latinus s. Faunus : so that there are nine hundred forty and three years from the dispersal of the Tower till Aeneas took the daughter of Latinus, and Latinus made his treaties with him.

From that it is clear that the authors of the Auraicept do not reach a correct conclusion, that Latinus was one of the six chief leaders of the Tower, seeing that the length downward between them is forty years, from the dispersal of the Tower till Feinius Farsaid came from the north, out of Scythia with his School, to seek for the languages : for they thought that they would find them there inasmuch as it was from thence that they were dispersed. There were two years after the coming of Feinius from the north until Ninus.

18. It is the aforesaid Nel son of Feinius Farsaid whom Pharao Cincris King of Egypt invited, for the greatness of his skill, his knowledge, and his learning : and Pharao granted him an estate, and his daughter, Scota her name, was bestowed.

Some say that the reason why she was called "Scota" was that "Scot" was her husband's name, and "Scots" the name of the people from whom he came ; unde dicitur "Scotus" and "Scota."

19. So that the following is said of those matters —

1. Father of all, Master of Heaven,
the noble angelic King,
our Champion, our Lord, our Head,
without beginning, end, or termination.

2. Better than every King is the King of Grace
by whom was made the great excellent world-stuff,
the orders of Heaven, fair the fame,
together on the first Sunday.

3. He formed the seven heavens on the Monday,
on the Tuesday sea, earth with enduring surface;
on the Wednesday, moon and bright sun ;
clouds and birds on Thursday.

4. Man, who was formed thereafter,
Debrad ! on the Friday,- —
he was taken, from foot to head,
out of the fair common earth.

5. The works of the full sixth day
I shall relate to you in (this) good company;
[I shall tell of] the beasts of the earth, west and east,
of the form of Adam, rich in colour.

6. The head of renowned Adam perfectly
was taken from the good land of Malon :
through which go forth
the rivers of Paradise famously.

7. The breast of the man from lofty Aron,
his belly from ever-fierce Babylon,
his legs from Laban, a conspicuous land,
his thighs from the country of Gogoma.

8. Three days had Adam without life
after his formation from earth ;
because of a Man who was three days
without life in His ever-fair body.

9. There were Three Persons who formed his fair body
after he arose alive;
sweat from water, it was with his good will,
heat of fire, breath of air.

10. The night of Adam, generous the repose,
eastward upon Pairtech Mountain of Paradise;
he welcomed the sight of the sun
over the top of the great mountain.

11. I adore, I adore Thee, O God!—
this was the first word that he uttered :
When he saw noble Eve,
then he made his first laugh.

12. His first walk — beauty of strength —
to the Spring of Partech of Paradise :
his first race, a course with swiftness,
to see the birds.

13. Fifteen days, it is no idle tale,
had Adam and Eve together,
till a demon of misdeeds (?).
reached them, on a Friday.

14. The form of a serpent, a body of thin air,
the devil took to himself on the evil course :
the letters through which he made incantation — a wretched affair —
were He, Vav, He, and Yodh.

15. There is the reason — it is familiar —
why men say "Left beyond right" :
because it is the crooked left hand
that was stretched to the apple.

16. After they had sinned — it was not lawful —
they were cast into the lofty land of Egypt :
A space of three months after the transgression
the one palm-tree fed and clothed them.

17. Cain was conceived, it was not long;
Abel was conceived and brought to birth ;
to withered Cain of the shackle
the deed of the curse adhered.

18. They went to offer two rams,
Abel, Cain who was not noble ;
the King did not consider worthy
the offering which Cain brought with him.

19. There came the grace of the brilliance of the King of Suns
upon the offering which Abel brought :
thence did envy and anger fill
sinful Cain of the crooked crafts.

20. Cain took in his savage hand
the guilty jaw-bone of the camel;
to Abel he leapt with violence,
so that he slew him with a blow.

21. Seth set his hand to the jaw-bone,
on seeing the blood of the sin :
he is the man without deficiency
upon whom the first beard grew.

22. The learned tell us,
the people of wisdom of manifold melody,
that from a long time the stones grow not —
from the day when Abel's blood suffused them.

23. After that seven wens took hold
upon Cain, after the kin-murder :
a wen [upon] each of his fair feet,
and two wens upon his hands.

24. A wen in his forehead, alas,
and a wen [upon J each of his cheeks :
through the wen of his forehead, very wretched !
[went] the apple which Lamech cast.

25. Lamech the two-spoused, without falsehood,
he is the first man who took two wives :
by him did crooked Cain fall,
after he cast the apple upon him.

26. The two sons of Lamech, valiant their strength,
Iubal and Tubalcain :
Iubal invented harps of music (?),
Tubalcain was the first smith.

27. The offering of Abel, as it hath been heard,
was taken after him into Paradise ;
that is the very splendid ram
which was given in place of the sons (sic) of Abram.

28. The hide formerly of that ram
came to Abram after Abel :
it was seen about Christ without fault
as He washed for His disciples.

29. Daisia, that was the name of the tree
with much and beautiful fruit,
in the Plain of Aron in Paradise —
for which the sin was committed.

30. Eight and forty, nine hundreds
and a thousand, it is no fiction,
from the time of that same fair Adam
to Abram, to the father.

31. Thirty and nine hundred clear years
was the life of Adam with its fame ;
ten years, with all of those,
was the life of his yellow-haired wife.

32. The life of Seth, I have that knowledge,
fifteen over nine hundreds :
five years and nine hundred, it was heard,
until death took Enos.

33. Ten years and nine hundred, without vexation
the age of the son of Enos, Cainan;
nine hundred save five, with renown,
the life of Malaleth great and pure.

34. Sixty five years, nine hundred
to Iareth before going to death :
three hundred sixty and five was it heard
to Enoch before going into Paradise.

35. Eighty years with fame
and nine hundreds of years —
that is the stately life
which was given to Mathusalem.

36. The life of Lamech, to you is it mentioned,
seven hundred, five and seventy :
the life of Noe, holy his renown,
fifty over nine hundreds of years.

37. Adam had three sons who had progeny —
Seth, Sile, Cain perverse and crooked :
their three wives, victorious strength !
were Olla, Pip and Pithip.

38. Three sons of noble Noe, of every [kind of] strength
Sem, Ham, glorious Iafeth :
from Ham, for all his firmness,
the high-kingship was sundered.

39. Cata Rechta, she was the wife of Sem,
Cata Casta, the wife of Iafeth,
Cata Flavia, with pleasant love,
was the name of Ham's wife, I conceal it not.

40. Ham settled in pleasant Africa,
Iaphet settled in Europe;
it is not hidden from us, before God ! —
Sem settled altogether in Asia.

41. Thirty races, a pure, clear saying,
sprang from Ham son of Noe :
twenty seven, which are from Sem,
fifteen from Iafeth.

42. In the mountain of Radrap the fate of Sem ;
the death of Iafeth in a mountain of Armenia ;
in the mountain of Rafann, a pure, clear saying,
the great sleep of Ham son of Noe.

43. The height of the ark, a place in which are
thirty balanced cubits;
three hundred cubits in its length ;
in its breadth, fifty cubits.

44. One cubit in its thickness eastward,
what with wood and pitch :
pitch about it without regret (?),
outside and inside.

45. Its door out of its free side,
as holy Noe ordained;
for He would open its side eastward,
our Christ, our Head, our Father.

46. Thrice fifty miles with victory
was the height of the famous Tower of Nemrod;
fifty miles over every side
did the strong royal Tower contain.

47. Thrice four men and three score, truly,
the reckoning of leaders and strong kings
by whom the Tower was made in the East,
including Nemrod and Nabcodon.

48. Including Assur and lofty Ibad,
Latinus and Longbardus,
Grecus and brilliant Gomer,
great Eber son of Sale.

49. Including Bodb and Britus without deception,
Germanus and Garad,
Scithus and pure Gothus,
Dardan and swift Sardan.

50. King of the earth and of the lords,
the King who prolongeth every life,
may He make enduring my form, my body
though the abbot and the high king be alike.

51. The languages were dispersed for them,
for the subjection of Nemrod, great in strength ;
and the Tower was overturned,
so that their pride was humiliated.

52. Five years and forty fair,
a thousand seven hundreds of years,
from the superb beginning of the world,
till the Tower of Nemrod fell.

53. In the plain of Senar, after the Tower,
was the fair school assembled,
in the city of Ibitena,
for learning the manifold languages.

54. Those skilled in the tongues — 'tis tuneful fame —
for their cunning I enumerate them :
including Feinius Farsaid with grace
and Cai of the just judgements.

55. Hiruath, Nenual brother of Nel,
Gaedel son of Etheor,
David, Loth of the blades,
Saliath, Nabcodon, Forand.

56. Talemon, Cainan, there is no concealment,
Caleph, Mored, Gad, Gomer,
Etrochius, Bel, tuneful Bobel,
Ossi, Iessu, Iochim.

57. Hidomus and lofty Ordmor,
Achab and very rough Ruben,
Humelchus, brilliant Ionan,
Affraim, Sru, Iar son of Nema.

58. Nel son of Feinius who was not weak
went into Egypt, to Pharao;
in the land of Egypt thereafter,
was born Gaedel our father.



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